Ancient Indian History(Quick Revision)

 

 

Pre-Harappan Period

  Lower Paleolithic Hand axe & cleaver industriesPahalgam, Belan valley (U.P), 
  (600,000 – 60,000 BC)  Bhimbetka, Adamgarh, 16 R Singi Talav 
  Middle Paleolithic Tools made on flakesBhimbetka, Nevasa, Pushkar, Rohiri 
  (150,000 – 40,000 BC)  hills of upper sind 
  Upper Paleolithic Tools made on flakes & bladesRajasthan, Parts of Belan & Ganga 
  (45,000 – 10,000 BC)  Valley (U.P). 
  Mesolithic/ Microlithic Parallel sided blades of chert,Bagor (Raj), Langhnaj (Guj), Sarai 
  (10,000 – 7000 BC) chalcedony, jasper, agateNahar Rai, Chaopani Mando, Mahdaha, 
       Damdama (U.P), Bhimbetka, Adamgarh. 
  Neolithic Earthern potsMehrgarh (Pak) Gufkral & Burzahom 
  (8000 BC – 2000 BC)  (J&K), Mahgara, Chopani Mando, 
       Kodihwa in Belan Valley (U.P.) Chirand 
       (Bihar). 
  Chalcolithic Distinct painted potteryCultures: Ahar culture (oldest), Kayatha, 
  (3000-900 B.C.) Fire worship widespread.Malwa culture, Salvada culture, , 
       Prabhas culture, Rangpur culture & 
       Jorwe culture (newest). 
  Copper Hoard Culture Harpoons, Antennae swords,Gungeria (M.P-largest) 
      Anthromorphs  
  OCP Culture Pottery with bright red slip &All over gangetic plain with same 
  (Ochre coloured pottery) painted in black.regions as that of copper hoard culture. 
  •Ahar people (Aravalli region) – distinctive black & red ware decorated with white designs. 
  •Prabhas & Rangpur wares have a glossy suface due to which they are called lusturous red ware. 
  •Jorwe culture (Maharashtra) – painted black on red but has a matt surface treated with a wash. 
      Select Harrapan Cities (Chalcolithic Age) 
1. Harappa Great granary, 40 % of total seals found here; Seals usually made of steatite 
   [Dayaram Sahni] depicting elephant, bull, unicorn, rhinoceros; figurines – torso 
2. Mohenjodaro “Mound of the dead”; largest of all cities; Great Bath; granary; city was 
   [R.D Banerjee] flooded occasionally, figurines of yogi, bronze dancing girl, seal bearing 
     Pashupati.  
3. Lothal [S.R. Rao]. Earliest cultivation of rice; Fire altars 
      
4. Kalibangan [A. Ghosh]. Fire Altars showing cult sacrifice; 
       
5. Dholavira, [R.S. Bisht]  
6. Banwali [R.S. Bisht] Fire Altars;  
7. Mehrgarh Evidences of cotton;  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Indian Religious Books
PuranasDivided into sarga, pratisarga, manvantantar, vamsa (genealogical list of kings) &
 vamsanucharita. 18 main puranas & 18 subsidiary puranas.
VedasMeaning “knowledge”. Rigveda (hymns), Yajurveda (sacrificial formulae), Atharvaveda
 (magical charms & spell), Samveda. Vedas are called aparusheya (not created by man) &
 nity
UpanishadsAbout 200 in number. Deal with philosophy. Oldest & most important are Chhandogya &
 Brihadranyaka. Other important are Kathak, Isa, Mundaka, Prasna etc. Do not believe in
 sacrificial ceremonies.
BrahmanasTalks about vedic hymns, their application, stories of their origin. Each Brahmana is
 associated with one of the four VedasAitareya brahmana is associated with Rig Veda &
 Satapatha Brahmana with Yajur veda.
AranyakasMeaning ‘the forest books’. They discuss philosophical meditation  & sacrifice.
VedangasEvolved for proper understanding of the Vedas. Six in all: Siksha (phonetics), Kalpa
 (rituals), Vyakarna, Nirukta (Etymology) Chhanda (metrics) & Jyotisha.
VedantaAdvaita Vedanta of Adi Sankara.

 

 

 

 

Ancient Books & Authors

1.Mudrakshasha (Chandragupta Maurya defeating the Nandas);Vishakhadatta
 Devichandraguptam 
2.Malavikagnimitram (Pushyamitra Sunga)Kalidas
3.Gudavaho (Yasovarman of Kannauj)Vakpati
4.Vikramanakadevacharita (Chalukya king Vikramaditya)Bilhana
5.KumarapalacharitaJayasimha
6.HammirakavyaNyayachandra
7.Dvayashraya Mahakavya; Sapta SadhanaHemchandra
8.NavashasankacharitaPadmagupta
9.BhojaprabandhaBillal
10.PrithvirajcharitaChandrabardai
11.Meghaduta; Raghuvamsa; Kumarasambhava; VikramorvasiyamKalidas
 Abhijnanashakuntalam (Drama); 
12.MrichakatikaSudraka
13.Uttarama-Charita; Malati MadhavaBhavbhuti
14.AmarakoshaAmarasimha
15.Si-yu-KiHiuen Tsang
16.Brahmasiddhanta; KhandakhadyaBrahmagupta
17.DasakumaracharitaDandin
18.Astanga-Sangraha; Astanga-Hirdaya-SamhitaVagabhatta
19.Panchsiddhantika; Suryasiddhanta; BrihatsamhitaVarahamihira
20.Karpuramanjari; Bala Ramayana; Bala Bharata; Kavyamimamsa;Rajshekhara
 Bhuvana Kosha; Haravilasa 
21.Adinathacharita (Jaina Narrative)Vardhamana
22.Shantinathacharita (Jaina Narrative)Devachandra
23.Parsvanathacharita (Jaina Narrative)Devabhadra
24.Prithviraja VijayJayanka
25.KarnasundariBilhana
26.Saraswati KanthabharanaBhoja
27.DasharupaDhananjaya
28.Harikeli NatakaVisaladeva
29.PrasannaraghavaJayadeva
30.Siddhanta Shiromani [4 parts – Lilavati, Bijaganita, Grahaganita &Bhaskaracharya
 Gola (on Astronomy)] 
31.Rajmariganka (On Astronomy)King Bhoja
32.Chikitsakalika or YogamalaTisata-Vagbhatta’s Son
33.MitakasaraVijnanaeshvara
34.Nitishastra (On Polity)Mathara
35.Nitisara  (On Polity)Kamandaka
36.Sushruta Samhita (encyclopedia on surgery)Sushruta
37.Charaka Samhita (Teachings of Atreya)Charaka
38.Buddhacharita, Vajrasuchi, SuandaranandaAsvaghosha
39.MahabhasyaPatanjali
40.Harshacharita, KadambariBanabhatta
41.Ravan VadhaBhattin

 

 

 

 

 

Famous Inscriptions

InscriptionKing  Aspect
Junagarh RockRudradaman (Saka) Sanskrit. Says that a dam on the sudarshana lake
      was constructed by Pushyagupta a governor of
      Chandragupta Maurya
Allahabad PillarSamudragupta Sanskrit. Composed by Harisena
Aihole InscriptionPulakeshin II Mentions Harsha defeat by Pulakeshin II.
      Composed by Ravikriti Vishnuvardan son of King.
Gwalior InscriptionBhoja  Most famous Pratihara king.
HathigumphaKharvela    
Boghaz koiProves Rig Veda to be Indra, Varuna, Mitra, two Nasatyas mentioned
[1400 B.C.]more than 1400 BC old.   
Nanaghat InscriptionSatkarni I  Achievements of the king
  [Satvahana king]   
Nasik InscriptionGautamiputra Satkarni Achievements of the king.
Mehrauli Iron PillarChandragupta II   
Mandsor InscriptionKumaragupta I Composed by Vatsabhatti.
Bhitari Stone pillarSkandagupta    
TiruvalangaduRajendra I (Chola) His conquests (annexed whole of SriLanka)
UttaramerurCholar Period Chola village assemblies
Besnagar InscriptionNear Vidisa (MP). Mentions Heliodorus the ambassador of king Antialcidas
  called himself Bhagvata & erected garudadhvaja in his honour of Vasudev.
    Buddhist Councils
I Buddhist Council 500 BC at Ajatsataru . Record the Buddha’s sayings (sutra) and codify
  Rajgaha Presided by monastic rules (vinaya). Rajgaha is today’s
    Mahakasyapa Rajgir
II Buddhist Council 383 BC at Kalasoka The conservative schools insisted on monastic
  Vaishali    rules (vinaya). The secessionist Mahasangikas
       argued for more relaxed monastic
       rules.Rejection of the Mahasanghikas
III Buddhist Council 250 BC Ashoka.. Purpose was to reconcile the different schools of
  Pataliputra    Buddhism. Presided by Moggaliputta Tissa
IV Buddhist Council 100 AD Kanishka Division into Hinayana & Mahayana. Theravada
  Kashmir Presided by Buddhism does not recognize the authenticity of
    Vasumitra & this council, and it is sometimes called the
    Asvaghosha “council of heretical monks”.
V Buddhist Council 1871 King Mindon recite all the teachings of the Buddha and
  Myanmar    examine them in minute detail to see if any of
       them had been altered
VI Buddhist Council 1954 P.M. U Nu  
  Yangoon     

 

      Nastika Shools of Indian System of Philosophy
Charvaka Believes only in materialism. No life beyond death, no soul no god.
Jaina  The names of two tirthankaras, Rishabhanath & Aristhanemia finds mention in Rig Veda.
540 BC Twenty third was Parsva, son of Ishvaku king Asvasena. Said to have flourished 300 yrs
     before Mahavira. Mahavira, the last Tirthankara  born in Kundagrama near Vaisali. His
     father Siddhartha was the head of Jnatrika clan & mother Trisala was the sister of Chetaka,
     a Lichchhavi noble. Chetaka’s dauthter was married to Bimbisara the king of Magadha.
     Mahavira was married to Yasoda. Left home at 30 & attained Kaivalya at 42.  He accepted
     4 doctrines of Parsava & added celibacy to it.  Chandragupta Maurya patronized it. Passed
     away at Pawapuri.
Buddha Gautama (known as Siddhartha as prince) was born in Lumbini near Kapilvastu to
566 B.C. Suddhodhana, the king of Sakya republic & Mayadevi who died seven days after his birth.
     Gautama was married to Yasodhara from whom he had a son Rahul. 6 years of meditation
     led to enlightenment. First sermon in Sarnath known as ‘Set in motion the wheel of law’.
     Eight fold paths. Buddhism denies efficacy of vedic rituals & superiority of brahmanas.
     Followers were upasakas & bhikshus. Died at the age of 80 in Kushinagar.
      Astika Schools of Indian System of Philosophy
 Vaisesika   Five elements – Earth, water, air, fire, Ether. 
 Nyaya   Accepts all categories of Vaisesika & adds one Abhava (negation). 
 Samkhya   Oldest of all. Twenty five basic principles first being ‘Prakriti’. Gives 
        doctrine of 3 qualities – virtue (sattva), passion (rajas) & dullness (tamas) 
 Yoga     Salvation through: Yama (self control), Niyama, Asanas, Pranayama, 
        Pratyahara (restrain), Dharana (steady mind), Dhyana & Samadhi. 
 Mimamsa   Recognises Vedas as final authority. 
 Vedanta   Adi Sankara is protagonist. Ultimate reality ‘Brahma’ is one. Highest 
        level of truth is that the whole world that exists is Maya. Ramanuja 
        (founder of Sri Vaishnavism) differed from Sankara on his commentaries 
        on Upanishads & Gita. 
        Forms of Marriage
 1. Brahma  Duly dowered girl to a man of the same class  
 2. Daiva  Father gives daughter to a sacrificial priest as a part of his fee  
 3. Arsa   A token bride price of a cow & a bull is given in place of the dowry  
 4. Prajapatya  Father gives girl without dowry & without demanding the bride price  
 5. Gandharva  Love Marriage  
 6. Asura  In which bride was bought from her father  
 7. Rakshasa  Marriage by capture, practiced especially by warriors.  
 8. Paishacha  Marriage by seduction  
 Daiva marriage was considered ideal 7 paisacha the worst.  

 

  Dynasties of Ancient Northern India
DynastyKing Description
HaryankaBimbisara* Founded after overthrowing the Brihadrathas. He also annexed
   Anga
 Ajatasatru Conquered Lichhavis of Vaisali. Also defeated Prasenajit of
   Kosala. Succeded by Udayani who founded Pataliputra.
SisungaSisunga People elected Sisunga as Udayani & his 3 successors were
   unworthy
NandaMahapadma Barber but a great military genius. Defeated many dynasties.
 Nanda*  
Alexander’sAlexander Defeated Persian King Darius III & marched to India through
Campaign  Khyber pass. King of Taxila offered help.
MauryasChandragupta Educated by Chanakya at Taxila. ‘Parisistha Parvam’ a jain text
 Maurya* describes that he defeated the Nanda king & became ruler of
 [324-300 BC] Magadha empire. Defeated Greek, Selecus who had succeded
   Alexander in the eastern part. Selecus sent Megasthenes to his
   court.
 Bindusara He appointed his two sons, Sumana at Taxila & Ashoka at Ujjain.
 [300-273 BC] Ptolemy Philadelphous of Egypt sent Dionysius to his court.
 Ashoka Known as devanampiya & piyadasi. Edicts were in Greek &
   Aramaic in Afghanistan, Prakrit language & Kharosthi script in
   Pakistan. Prakrit language & Brahmi script in other areas. Rock
   Edict XIII (Kalinga war) Bhabru Edict (Buddhism as his religion)
   VII (all sects desire self control & purity) XII (equal respect to all
   religion) II (Dhamma – Common code of conduct). Succeded by 6
   Mauryan kings from Dasaratha to Brihadratha.
SungaPushyamitra Army chief of Maurya king Brihadratha killed him while he was
 Sunga reviewing the army. Succeded by Agnimitra, Jethmitra &
   Vasumitra. Last king was Devabhuiti.
MeghavahanasKharavela Hathigumpha inscription on Udaigiri hills near Bhubneshwar
   refers his achievement till 13th year. Ruled Kalinga.
Satvahanas ofSimuka* Satvahanas also known as Andhras. Succeeded by Krishna,
Deccan[235-213 BC] Satkarni I, Satakarni II, Gautamiputra Satakarni, Pulmavi II, Sri
   Yajna Satakarni.
Indo GreeksMenander Ruled in Pakistan region. Converted to Buddhism by Nagasena.
   Milindapanho is related to their conversation.
SakasNahapana Sakas also known as Scythians were driven out of their original
   home land by Yueh Chi who later came to be known as Kushanas.
   Nahapana ruled in western India.
 Rudradaman Junagarh Rock Inscription talks about him. He undertook the
 130-150 AD repairs of the Sudarsan dam built by Pushyagupta, governor of
   Chandra Gupta Maurya. Ujjaynii was capital. Dynasty came to an
   end with the last king being defeated by Chandragupta II in 390
   AD
KushanasKadphises I Also called Kujula Kadphises.  Kadphises I was succeded by his
   son Wema Kadphises or Kadphises II – devotee of Shiva.
 Kanishka Succeded Kadphises II. Capital of his vast empire was Purushapur
 73 – 101 AD or modern Peshawar.

 

  The Guptas & Later Period
GuptasChandragupta ISri Gupta was the first Gupta king followed by Ghatotkacha.
 AD 320 ADChadragupta I was Ghatotkacha’s son.
 SamudraguptaSon of Chandragupta I. Undertook south India campaign.
  Meghavarna, King of Srilanka sent an embassy to his court to
  build a monastery at Bodh Gaya.
 Chandragupta IISon of Samudtragupta & Duttadevi. Married his daughter
 380-413 ADPrabhavatigupta to Rudrasena II of Vataka dynasty. Defeated
  Sakas & took the title of Vikramaditya.
 Later GuptasKumaragupta I, Skandagupta (Inflicted a crushing defeat on the
  Hunas; repair of the dam on Sudarsana lake built by chandragupta
  maurya & earlier repared by Rudradaman I.
Post GuptaFrom the decline of Gupta & the rise of Harsha there flourished four major kingdoms
Peiodin north India: Guptas of Magadha, Maukharis (around Kanauj), Maitrakas
 (Saurashtra – Vallabhi as capital), Pushyabhutis of Thaneshwar (Uttaranchal).
PushyabhutiHarshavardhanaSon of Prabhakarvardhana of Pushyabhuti of Thaneshwar. Brother
 606 – 647 ADof Rajyavardhana & Rajyasri (sister married to Maukhari king,
  Grahavarman of Kanauj, later killed by Sasanka of Gauda). Also
  known as Siladitya. Gauda was later divided between him &
  Bhaskarvarman, the king of Kamarupa.
Deccan &Vatakas (Deccan) – Vindhyasakti*, *Pravarasena*. Replaced by Chalukyas.
South IndiaRashtrakutas – Dantidurga I*. They succeded Chalukyas of Badami.
 Western Gangas (Mysore) – Konkanivarman Dharmamahadhiraja*
 Kadamba Dynasty of Banavasi – Mayursarman*, *Kakusthavarman*
 Pallavas of Kanchipuram – Simhavishnu, Mahendravarman , *Narsimhavarman*
 Later Kanauj was ruled by Yashovarman (discussed in Vakpati’s Gaudavaho)
GurjaraNagabhatta I*After Nagabhatta I came Vatsaraja who defeated Dharmapala but
Pratiharas was in turn defeated by Rashtrakuta king Dhruva. Dhramapala
  taking advantage installed his nominee chakrayudha at Kanauj
 Nagabhatta IIDefeated Chakrayudha & captured Kanuaj & defeated
  Dharmapala. Ramabhadra succeded him
 BhojaSucceded his father Ramabhadra. Defeated Rashtrakuta king
  Krishna II. He was devotee of Vishnu & took the title of
  Adivaraha.  He was followed by great ruler Mahendrapala I
PalasGopala*Elected by people to end Matsyanyaya (internal disorder). Next
  was Dharmapala who installed Chakrayudha at Kanauj but was
  defeated by Dhruva.
 DevapalaMost mighty pala king.
RashtrakutasDantidurga*Dantidurga was succeded by his uncle Krishna I (built Kailasha)
 DhruvaDefeated both the Pratihara king Vatsaraja &Pala  Dharampala.
  Was succeded by Govinda III & later Amoghavarsha I. Later
  came Indra III (defeated pratihara Mahipala I) & Krishna III
KamarupaBhaskarvaramaRuled by single dynasty from the time of Mahabharata upto middle
  7th century till Bhaskaravarma (ally of Harsha). Dynasty came to
  an end after his death.

 

           South India 
  CholasKarikala Defeated joint forces of Chera & Pandyas. Also conquered Sri 
         Lanka. Capital was at Puhar (Kaveripattanam) 
  PandyasNedunjeliyan Capital at Madurai & port at Korkai. Defeated Cholas & Cheras 
  CherasNedunjeral Cheras are also known as Keralaputras. Nedunjeral Adan & 
      Adan Sengutturan were the greatest king. 
          Kings & their Court Jewels 
  1. Pushyamitra Sunga Patanjali  
  2. Mahendrapala I (Pratihara) Rajshekhara  
  3. Kanishka    Parsva, Vasumitra, Ashvaghosha, Charaka, Sushruta, Nagarjuna  
  4. Chandragupta II Kalidas, Fa-Hien, Varahamihira  
          Monuments of Ancient Period 
 1. Udaygiri Caves  During Chandragupta’s reign at Vidisha, M.P. 
 2. Angorwatt Temples  Suryavarman Ii 
 3. Vikramashila University  Pala King Dharampala 
 4. Kailash Temple (Ellora)  Rashtrakuta king Krishna I 
 5. Dilwara Temple  Tejapala 
 6. Rathas of Mamallapuram  Mahendravarman I (Pallava King) 
 7. Khajuraho temples  Chandelas 
 8. Martanda temple (Kashmir)  Lalitaditya Muktapida 
 9. Gommateswara  (Son of Rishabnath)Chamundaraya, Minister of the Ganga King, Rajamalla 
           (Sravanbelagola, Karnataka) 
 10.Hoysalesvara Temple (at Halebid)Ketamalla, a minister of KingVishnuvardhana (Karnataka) 
           Mahajanapadas 
       Kasi   Varanasi  
       Kosala   Sravasti  
       Kuru   Indraprashta  
       Kamboja   Rajput  
       Anga   Champa  
       Avanti   Ujjayini & Mahishmati  
       Ashmaka   Potana  
       Malla   Kusinagar & Pawa  
       Magadha   Rajgriha or Giriraj  
       Matsya   Virat Nagari  
       Vajji   Vaisali  
       Vatsa   Kausambhi  
       Surasena   Mathura  
       Panchala   Aichhatra  
       Chhedi   Shuktimati  
       Gandhara Taxila & Pushkalavati  

Administrative Units & Their Ancient Names

SAdministrative PartNorth IndiaSouth India
1.ProvincesBhuktiMandalam
2.DivisionsVishaya or BhogaKottams or Vallandadu
3.DistrictAdhistana/PattanaNadu
4.TehsilVihtisPattala/Kurram

 

Jargon of Ancient Period

Lohit AyasCopperPradeshikaHead of district Administration
Syam AyasIronNagarkaCity administration
VanikTradersJesthakaChief of a Guild
GraminiVillage HeadPrathamakulikaChief of artisans
BhagadughaTax collectorUparikaGovernor of Bhukti
SthapatiChief JudgeDidishuRemarried woman
TakshanCarpenterAmatyaHigh official
NiskaUnit of currencyDvijaInitiation into education
SatamanaUnit of currencyYuktaRevenue officer in the Mauryan period.
PanaTerm used for coinRajjukasLand measurement & fixing land revenue
ShresthiGuildsSabhaAssembly of few select ones
ViharaBuddhist MonasterySamitiLarger Assembly
ChaityaSacred EnclosureDharamamahamatyaMost important post created by Asoka.

 

 

 

 

Miscellaneous Facts:

 

  1. The Sangama literature [0-400AD] consists of 30,000 lines of poetry divided into two main groups, Patinenkilkanakku (older) & Pattupattu (newer). Established by Pandyan kings of Tamil region.

 

  1. The credit to complete the chart of Ashokan alphabets goes to James Prinsep.

 

  1. Most of the modern scripts of India including Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam, Nagari, Gujarati, Bangla have developed from Brahmi script. Ashokan inscription of Shahbazgari & Manashera are written in Kharoshthi.

 

  1. The earliest coins were punch marked silver & copper coins. They bear only symbol & no inscription or legend. Kushanas (Vima Kadphises – figure of Siva standing beside a bull) issued mostly gold coins.

 

  1. Buddha did not visit Taxila in his life.

 

  1. Some of the important rock painting sites are Murhana Pahar (U.P), Bhimbetka, Adamgarh, Lakha Juar (M.P.) & Kapagallu (Karnatka).

 

  1. The extent of Indus valley civilization was Sutkagendor (Baluchistan), Alamgirpur (Meerut), Daimabad (N. Maharashtra) & Manda (J & K). Harrapan civilization is often referred to as Bronze Age civilization. No unambiguous depiction of horse found on any seal. The largest number of seals depict unicorn.

 

  1. Inscription was from right to left but if more than one line than alternated to left to right & vice versa.

 

  1. Yoga was in vogue in Indus civilization. Shiva, Mother goddess, trees, linga, yoni were worshiped. Chanhudaro is the only city without a citadel & Surkotada is the only site where the actual remains of a horse have been found.

 

  1. Decline of Harrapa: Wheeler (Barbarian Aryans attack), John Marshall (environment degradation).

 

  1. The Nadisukta hymn of Rig Veda mentions 21 rivers which include Ganga in the east & the Kubha (Kabul) in the west. Saraswati is considered to be the most important. Zero was known in rig vedic times

 

  1. In the vedic age the varnas were not rigid but they became so in the later vedic period & became birth based rather than profession based. Untouchability had not yet reared its ugly head. Jati had not become a rigid system. Bali which was a voluntary gift to chief earlier became a regular tax in the later vedic age.

 

  1. Moksha can be acquired by Gyan, Bhakti & Karma. Four dynasties stand out prominently in the sixth century B.C are Haryankas of Magadha, Ishvakus of Kosala, the Pauravas of Vatsa & the Pradyotas of Avanti.

 

  1. During the time of Ashoka, Pataliputra was administered by a city council of 30 members divided into a board of 5 members each. Sales tax on goods was 10 %. The Ashokan Pilar with Lion Capital is located at Lauriya Nandangarh, Pillar capital from Rampurva & Capital from Sarnath. Seven rock cut chaitya

 

 

 

caves in the Barabar & Nagarjuni hill show that the tradition of rock cut caves in India began with the

 

Mauryas.

 

  1. The indo-Greeks were the first whose coins carried the portraits of kings & their names. Also they were the first rulers to issue gold coins.

 

  1. In the south the old phase is known as the megalithic phase with the burials being marked by abundance of iron tools & a Black & red pottery. It appears there was an abrupt change from Neolithic to iron age, without any significant Chalcolithic or Bronze age.

 

  1. Anuloma (marriage between male of higher varna& female of lower varna) was considered better than Pratiloma (vv). Grihasta ashram had the duties of yajna, adhyayana &dana.

 

  1. Hinayana was the old order. Mahayana introduced concept of Bodhisttavas, worship of Buddha as god (Hinayanists considered him just a great teacher), salvation of all beings, Sanskrit as new language. The development of Mahayana philosophy is ascribed to Nagarjuna who propounded Madhyamika school of Buddhist philosophy popularly known as Sunyavada.

 

  1. The Mathura & Gandhara schools of art flourished during Kushana period. Mathura school had the distinction of producing the first image of Buddha & Gandhara school was a hybrid of Indo-Greek form.

 

  1. The Stupas as Sanchi, Sarnatha, Amaravati, Bharhut are the best examples. I-tsing came to India in 7th century after spending several years in Sumatra & Sri Vijaya learning Buddhism.

 

  1. In south India, among the Nayannar saints, Tirumular’s Tirmurais are prominent. Saiva saints (Nayannars) were 63 in number. Lingayat (founded by Basava – Kalachuri) was other important sect of Saivism in south India influenced by both Sankara & Ramanuja. Vaishnave saints known as Alvars are traditionally 12 in number. Collection of their work is known as Nalayiraprabandham.

 

  1. The first Jaina council was held at Pataliputra by Sthulabahu in the beginning of third century BC & resulted in compilation of 12 Angas to replace the lost 14 Purvas. In the sixth century A.D. the second Jaina council was held at Valabhi under Devaradhi Kshamasramana & Jain canon was defined.

 

  1. The avatars of Vishnu are matsya, kurma (tortoise), varah (boar), narasimha, vaman (dwarf), parasurama, rama, Krishna, Buddha (the enlightened one) & kalki (to appear).

 

  1. West Bengal was known as Gauda & East Bengal as Vanga. Utkala (Orissa), Pragjotishpur (Assam).

 

  1. The king of Suvarnadwipa (modern Malaya), Balaputradeva erected a monastery at Nalanda & requested Devapala to donate five villages for the maintenance.

 

  1. The philosophy of Sankaracharya (Adi Sankara) is known as Advaita meaning ‘non dual’. He believed that absolute reality called ‘Brahma’ is non dual. Jyotirmatha at Badrinath, Sharadapitha at Dwakra,

 

 

 

 

 

Govardhanamatha at Puri & Shringerimatha in south. He organized Ascetics in ten orders – Giri, Puri (city), Bharati (learning), Vana (wood), Aranya (forest), Parvata, Sagara, Tirtha, Ashrama& Saraswati.

 

  1. Angkorvat temple dedicated to Vishnu & the famous Borobudur stupa in Java. The Sailendra dynasty ruled over SE Asia & followed Mahayana Buddhism.

 

  1. Eastern King (Samrat), Western King (Suvrat), Northern king (Virat), Southern King (Bhoja). After partition of India the largest number of Harappan settlements have been found in Gujarat.

 

  1. The utensils of the Harappan people were made of clay. Lead was not known to the Indus valley people. The Aryans came from Central Asia is widely accepted. The Vedic Aryans first settled in the region of Sapta Sindhu.

 

  1. The Gayatri Mantra is addressed to Savitri (associated with sun god). Two highest gods in the Vedic religion were Indra (war god) & Varuna (ocean god). Division of vedic society The oldest mention of varna system (four classes) is in the Purusha sukta of Rigveda. The dasas & dasyus mentioned in the Rig Veda refer to non-Aryans.

 

  1. The Hindu social sacraments such as marriage are performed on the basis of ritual described in the Grihyasutras. The symbols associated with the five great events of the Buddha are birth (lotus & lion), great renunciation (horse), attainment of knowledge (banyan tree), first sermon (wheel), death (stupa & foot prints). According to Buddha the cause of all sorrows is Trishna (attachment).

 

  1. Vinayak Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka contain teachings of the Buddha. Jatakas are stories of Buddhas previous life. Outside India, Buddhism was first accepted in Sri Lanka.

 

  1. The Mauryan sculptors had gained highest perfection in the carving of Pillars & the most striking feature is their polish. Two great Buddhist stupas rebuilt during the Sunga (were Brahmanas) Period were Dhammekh stupa at Sarnath & the stupa at Sanghot.
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