Sustainable Development

Bruntland Report (1983) was the first publication and recognition of the term ‘Sustainable Development’ “meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the needs of the future generation” Three pillars of sustainable development (Bruntland) Care and respect for People, Planet and Prosperity (Commercial Activities) <hence poverty alleviation, conservation and business development> These three pillars … Read more

Important Environmental Treaties

Treaty Signed/Into force Major Points Aarhus Convention on Access to information for public participation in decision making and access to justice in environmental matters 1998 Aarhus is a Danish city Adopted at the fourth ministerial conference in the ‘Environment for Europe’ process Links environmental rights and human rights   India – No Vienna Convention for … Read more

Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD)

Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) is a set of steps designed to use market/financial incentives in order to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases from deforestation and forest degradation. Its original objective is to reduce green house gases but it can deliver “co-benefits” such as biodiversity conservation and poverty alleviation. REDD+ is … Read more

CoP15 (Copenhagen Summit)

Main aim was to establish a global climate agreement for the period from 2012 when the first commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol expires The conference did not achieve any binding agreement for long term action A ‘political accord’ was negotiated by approximately 25 parties Collective commitment by developed countries for new and additional resources … Read more

Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol has put in place three flexibility mechanisms to reduce emission of Green House Gases. Although the Protocol places maximum responsibility of reducing emissions on the developed countries by committing them to specific emission targets, the three mechanisms are based on the premise that reduction of emissions in any part of the globe … Read more

Inter-governmental action

IPCC UN Conference on Environment and Development (Earth Summit), 1992 Agenda 21 An action plan of UN relating to sustainable development adopted at the Earth Summit, 1992 UNFCCC Kyoto Protocol IPCC 1988 by World Meteorological Organisation and UNEP tasked with reviewing and assessing the most recent scientific, technical and socio-economic information produced worldwide relevant to … Read more

Climate Change Mitigation

Alternative Energy sources Renewable energy Nuclear Power Reduce the carbon intensity of fossil fuels Energy efficiency and conservation Transport and urban planning Building design Reforestation and avoid deforestation Eliminating waste methane Geoengineering Greenhouse gas remediation Biomass Carbon air capture Carbon capture and storage Societal control Population Sustainable life-style

Global Warming

An increase in the average temperature of Earth’s near surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century 4th assessment report of IPCC: global temperature increased 74+0.18 degree C during the 20th century. Caused by greenhouse gases Water vapour, Co2, Methane, Nitrous Oxide, Ozone, CFCs (in order of abundance) Since the industrial revolution, the burning of … Read more

Climate Change

It is the long term change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods of time Though it has been happening naturally for millions of years, in recent years it has accelerated due to anthropogenic causes and has been causing global warming. UNFCCC defines climate change as – “a change of climate which is … Read more

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