Books/Articles & Authors (Modern)

      Ghulamgiri (challenged superiority of Brahmins)   Jyotiba Phule Tuhfat-ul-Muwahhidin (Gift to Monotheists in Persian)   Raja Rammohun Roy Dharma Tritiya Ratna, Ishvara & Life of Shivaji   Jyotiba Phule New Lamp for the Old (Series of Articles criticizing Congress)   Aurobindo Ghosh Doctrine of Passive Resistance (Articles in Bande Mataram)   Aurobindo … Read more

Historical Underpinning and Evolution

  Evolution of Indian Constitution Although the systems of ancient India do have their reflections in the Constitutions of India, the direct sources of the Constitution lie in the administrative and legislative developments of the British period.   Regulating Act of 1773 This Act was based on the report of a committee headed by the … Read more

Modern Period

  Later Mughals 1707-12 Bahadur Shah I 1712-13 Jahandar Shah 1713-19 Farukk Siyar 1719-48 Muhammad Shah Rangila 1748-54 Ahmad Shah 1754-59 Alamgir II 1759-1806 Shah Alam II 1806-1837 Akbar Shah II 1837-57 Bahadur Shah II     Later Mughal Rulers Bahadur Shah I After the death of Aurangzeb, prince Muazzam, Azam & Kam Bakhsh fought … Read more

Cultural Achievements of the Pallavas

Civilization and Culture of the Pallavas The Pallava rule formed a golden epoch in the cultural history of south India. The period under the Pallavas was marked by considerable literary activities and cultural revival. The Pallavas warmly patronized Sanskrit language and most of the literary records of the time were composed in that language. Due … Read more

The Cholas: Maritime activities in Sourth-east Asian counturies. Chola administration, art & architecture.

The founder of the Chola Empire was Vijayalaya, who was first feudatory of the Pallavas of Kanchi. He captured Tanjore in 850 A.D. He established a temple of goddess Nishumbhasudini (Durga) there. Aditya I succeeded Vijayalaya. Aditya helped his overlord the Pallava king Aparajita against the Pandyas but soon defeated him and annexed the whole … Read more

Harsha-Vardhan : The last great Hindu ruler of Northern India; cultural achievements during his period.

Emperor Harshavardhana, better known as Harsha, lived from 590 to 647 CE and was the third ruler of the Vardhana Empire, the last great empire in ancient India before the Islamic Invasion. He ruled from 606 CE to 647 CE. After Harshavardhana’s death, however, the Vardhana dynasty came to an end and its empire dissolved. India, the land beyond the … Read more

The Guptas : Extent of empire; development of language and Literature, art St architecture during the Gupta period.

The Gupta Empire stretched across northern, central and parts of southern India between c. 320 and 550 CE. The period is noted for its achievements in the arts, architecture, sciences, religion, and philosophy. Chandragupta I (320 – 335 CE) started a rapid expansion of the Gupta Empire and soon established himself as the first sovereign ruler of the empire. It marked the end of 500 hundred … Read more

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