DMPQ-. Explain various types of revolutions, took place in Agriculture after Independence in India. How these revolutions have helped in poverty alleviation and food security in India?

After independence, India witnessed green , blue and white revolutions in farm, fishery and dairy sector respectively.

  • Green revolution:
  • It was initiated to achieve food security in the country.
  • It included three components : continued expansion of farming areas, double-cropping existing farmland, using seeds with improved genetics.
  • The Green Revolution resulted in a record grain output of 131 million tons in 1978-79. This established India as one of the world’s biggest agricultural producers.
  • It addressed the concern of frequent famine occurring in the country and also the need of import of food was eliminated. However, green revolution strategy mainly benefitted the large farmers.
  • Moreover, several ecological issues were also involved with excessive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides
  • White revolution:
  • Operation Flood is considered to be the world’s largest dairy development programme. Under this programme professionals were employed at every level, particularly in marketing and application, and science and technology.
  • The central plank of the programme was to link the rural producers with urban consumers.
  • The milk production in India increased from a level of 17 MT in 1950- 51 to about 100.9 MT at the end of 2006-07, i.e. at the end of the Tenth Plan.
  • The per capita availability of milk increased to about 246 gm per day in 2006-07 from a level of 124 gm per day in 1950-51. Thus, this led to the poverty alleviation and food security in india.
  • Blue revolution:
  • The Indian fisheries sector, which 50 years ago produced only 600 000 tonnes of fish, today produces 5 million tonnes, including 1.6 million tonnes from freshwater aquaculture.
  • The Blue Revolution is being implemented to achieve economic prosperity of fishermen and fish farmers and to contribute towards food and nutritional security through optimum utilization of water resources for fisheries development in a sustainable manner, keeping in view the bio-security and environmental concerns.
  • Silver revolution: It was centred around practice of raising poultry, such as chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, as a subcategory of animal husbandry, for the purpose of farming meat or eggs for food.
  • Grey revolution was launched in India to increase the manufacturing of fertilizer. Other agriculture revolutions like golden revolution meant for better fruit production, pink revolution meant for better prawn production, red revolution aimed for better meat production, yellow revolution aimed for better oil seed production etc.

Thus, these revolutions have significant role in poverty alleviation and food security

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