India is the second populous country after china. India has 17.74% of the total world population. The main reason for the high population growth is the high fertility rate which is presently 2.5. It means an Indian women in her reproductive span produces 2.5 offspring on an average.
The reasons for high fertility rate are as follows:
- Early and universal marriage: In India marriage is a social compulsion. Women are forced to marriage at an early age. They got married at an highly reproductive age of 15-20. About 80% of the girls in this age group get married.
- Effect of religion: In India, religion plays a major role in large size families. A son is must to provide continuity to female legacy. Even after so many girls in the family, the desire for one son prompts parents to continue with their child producing activity.
- Joint family system: The social structure in India is mainly dominated by the joint family system. The birth of an additional child causes no immediate hardship to the parents.
- Agrarian economy: The over dependence on agriculture is also one of the cause for high fertility rate. Birth of a child means additional hand for labour.
But recently a report released by government of India in the name of National health profile states that fertility is declining rapidly, including the among the poor and illiterate.