DMPQ:Explain the following terms: a) Ijara b) Kankut c) Khiraj

  1. a) Ijara:  the Ijarahsystem or revenue farming was introduced to boost up the state’s revenue in Bengal in the reign of Jahandar Shah (1712–13), who was supported by nobel Zulfiqar Khan.Under this system, when peasant did not have resources available for cultivation or due to some calamity cultivation could not be done, the lands were farmed out on ijarah to a third party called revenue farmers. The revenue officials or their relatives were not supposed to take land on ijarah . It was expected that revenue farmers would not extract more than the stipulated land revenue from the peasants. The revenue farmer paid the Government nine-tenth of the whole collection and kept the rest as his collection charges.


  1. b) Kankut: System of revenue assessment in Mughal era in which instead of actually dividing the grain (kan), an estimate (kut) was made on the basis of an actual inspection on the spot and one-third of the estimated produce was fixed as the state demand. So, it was a rough  estimate of produce on the basis of actual inspection and past experience.


  1. C) Khiraj:is a type of individual Islamic taxon agricultural landand its produce developed under Islamic law



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