DMPQ:What were the factors that led to the rift between extremist and moderates and eventually Surat Split?

The Extremists wanted to extend the Boycott and Swadeshi Movement to regions outsideBengal and also to include all forms of associations (such as government service, law courts,legislative councils, etc.) within the boycott programme and thus start a nationwide massmovement.

The Moderates, on the other hand, were not in favour of extending the movement beyondBengal and were totally opposed to boycott of councils and similar associations. Theyadvocated strictly constitutional methods to protest against the partition of Bengal.

At the Calcutta session of the Congress in December 1906, the Moderate enthusiasm hadcooled a bit because of the popularity of the Extremists and the revolutionary terrorists andbecause of communal riots. Here, the Extremists wanted either Tilak or Lajpat Rai as thepresident, while the Moderates proposed the name of DadabhaiNaoroji, who was widelyrespected by all the nationalists. The major ideological tussle can be summed up as follows:

  1. Different perception regarding the method of struggle
  2. Sawaraj was adopted but its abstract idea was different for both parties
  3. There was anticipation of council reforms by moderates but extremist were against this instance of patience and petition.
  4. Global factors have influenced the domestic polity at that time
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