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DMPQ: Micropropagation, Somatic hybridisation, Single cell protein, Mutation breeding

RAS/RTS Prelims and Mains Exam Preparation

Micropropagation

Ans:  Method of producing thousands of plants through tissue culture is called micropropagation. Each of these plants will be genetically identical to the original plant from which they are grown. They are soma clones.

Somatic hybridisation

Ans:  In somatic hybridisation cell wall is removed by digesting it with enzyme like pectinase and cellulase. Isolated protoplasts are fused together to form a new plant. These hybrids are called somatic hybrids while the process is called somatic hybridisation.

 

 Single cell protein

Ans:  Single cell protein is protein derived from a culture of single celled organism. They are used as food supplement. SCP should also reduce the pressure on agricultural production systems for supply of proteins and it can reduce environmental pollution.

 Mutation breeding

Ans:  It is the process by which genetic variations are created through changes in the base sequence within genes resulting in the creation of a new character or trait not found in the parental type. It is possible to induce mutations artificially through use of chemicals or radiations, and selecting and using the plants that have the desirable character as a source in breeding. For example, in mung bean, resistance to yellow mosaic virus and powdery mildew were induced by mutations.

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