The set of the agreement by the BCBS (BASEL COMMITTEE ON BANKING SUPERVISION), which mainly focuses on risks to banks and the financial system are called Basel accord. The purpose of the accord is to ensure that financial institutions have enough capital on account to meet the obligations and absorb unexpected losses. India has accepted Basel accords for the banking system. BASEL ACCORD has given us three BASEL NORMS which are BASEL 1,2 and 3.
- In 1988, The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) introduced capital measurement system called Basel capital accord, also called as Basel 1.
- Focussed entirely on credit risks.
- The minimum capital requirement was fixed at 8% of risk-weighted assets (RWA).
- India adopted it in 1999.
- Banks should maintain a minimum capital adequacy requirement of 8% of risk assets.
- Banks were needed to develop and use better risk management techniques in monitoring and managing all the three types of risks that is credit and increased disclosure requirements.
- The three types of risk are- operational risk, market risk, capital risk.
- Banks need to mandatory disclose their risk exposure, etc to the central bank.
- Basel II norms in India and overseas are yet to be fully implemented.
- In 2008, Lehman Brothers collapsed in September 2008, the need for a fundamental strengthening of the Basel II framework had become apparent.
- Basel III norms aim at making most banking activities such as their trading book activities more capital-intensive.
- The guidelines aim to promote a more resilient banking system by focusing on four vital banking parameters viz. capital, leverage, funding and liquidity.
- Presently Indian banking system follows Basel II norms.
- The Reserve Bank of India has extended the timeline for full implementation of the Basel III capital regulations by a year to March 31, 2019.