The purushartha are described as the pschyco -moral bases of Asharam theory. They are concerned with the understanding, justification , management and conduct of affairs of the individual’s life in relation to the group in and through asharam. These help the individual in getting psychological training and preparing himself to deal in the actual society.
There are four Purushartha which are the aims of the life:
- Dharma: The first and the highest aim of life is dharma. Dharma is a principle maintaining the stability in the society. Dharma is the central concept of all our social institutions. Dharma is there to control Kama and Artha. According to Bhagvad gita, Dharma is able to capable of preserving the universe.
- Artha: It refers to the satisfaction of acquisitive instinct in man. In general it relates to wealth and material well being. It means a righteous and honest pursuit of economic activities. Artha is desirable because a man has to maintain the household and perform the dharma as a householder. The Artha plays a stellar role in maintaining human life and dharma.
- Kama: It refers to all desire in man seeking pleasure through satisfaction of senses including sexual satisfaction. It includes all impulses , instincts and desire of man though in popular connotation undue emphasis has been laid on the needs of the flesh only. It also includes aesthetic satisfaction.
- Moksa: It is salvation, liberation from the endless cycles of births and deaths. It also refers to absorption of the self into eternal bliss. Moksha also implies self realisation or realisation of the identity.