It is a study to evaluate and identify the predictable environmental consequences and the best combination of economic and environmental costs and benefits of the proposed project. On the basis of EIA, an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) is prepared, which is a description of the means by which the environmental consequences as pointed out in the EIA will be mitigated. Together the whole draft is termed as EIA-EMP report.
Why EIA is conducted:
- To systematically examine both beneficial and adverse consequences of the proposal.
- To ensure that those consequences are taken into account during project design.
- To identify possible environmental effects of the proposal and means to mitigate them.
- To predict whether there will be significant adverse effects even after the mitigation.
- To lessen conflicts by promoting community participation and informing decision makers.