RAS PDF and Printed Notes for RAS Prelims and Mains Exam
Quick Revision-Concepts Related To Climate Change
Carbon sequestration is the process of removing carbon from the atmosphere and storing it in a fixed molecule in soil, oceans or plants.
An organism or landscape that stores carbon is called a carbon sink.
An organism or landscape that emits carbon is called a carbon source.
Climate change adaptation
Climate change adaptation refers to the adjustments societies or ecosystems make to limit the negative effects of climate change or to take advantage of opportunities provided by a changing climate.
Climate forcing refers to how climate affects the physical, chemical and biological attributes of a region.
Global warming Potential
Global Warming Potential (GWP) is the ability of a greenhouse gas to absorb heat compared to carbon dioxide over a specified period of time, from 20 to 500 years.
Global warming is an increase in the Earth’s average surface temperature from human-made greenhouse gas emissions.
Ocean acidification is the change in ocean chemistry due to decreasing pH levels, or increasing acidity, in seawater.
Ground level ozone
Ground level ozone is a gas produced through reactions between nitrous oxides (NOX) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when burning coal, gasoline and other fuels. VOCs are found in solvents, paints, hairsprays and more common items. Ozone consists of three oxygen atoms and is the main component of smog.
Particulate matter(PM-10) are aerosols including dust, soot and tiny bits of solid materials that are released and move around in the air. Sources are burning of diesel fuels, incineration of garbage, mixing and applying fertilizers and pesticides, road construction, steel making, mining, field burning, forest fires, fireplaces and woodstoves. PM causes eye, nose and throat irritation and respiratory problems.
Sea level is the average level between high tide and low tide where the surface of the sea meets a shoreline.
Aerosols are small suspended particles in a gas. Scientists can detect them in the atmosphere. They range in size from one nanometer (one billionth of a meter) to 100 micrometers (one millionth of a meter).
Anthropogenic describes a process or result generated by human beings.
Mitigation potential is a measurement of the amount of carbon that can be stored in order to balance the release of carbon. It is important in discussions about power plants and vehicles.
Global Average temperature
Global average temperature is a long-term look at the Earth’s temperature, usually over the course of 30 years, on land and sea.
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an environmental treaty that nations joined in 1992, with the goal of stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous human interference with the climate system.
Conference of the parties
the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the UNFCCC is a yearly international climate conference where nations assess progress and determine next steps for action through the UNFCCC treaty.
INDC stands for “Intended Nationally Determined Contribution.”countries have outlined what actions they intend to take beginning in 2020 under a proposed global climate agreement. These plans are known as INDCs, which will play a big part in moving us forward on the path toward a low-carbon, clean energy future.
IPCC is the acronym for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. First set up in 1988 under two UN organizations, the IPCC surveys the research on climate change happening all around the world and reports to the public about the current state of our scientific knowledge.
PRE-INDUSTRIAL LEVELS OF CARBON DIOXIDE
Pre-industrial levels of carbon dioxide refers to carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere prior to the start of the Industrial Revolution. Scientists estimate these pre-industrial levels were about 280 PPM, well below where we are today.
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