Tax Reforms in India
Sience 1990 ie the liberalization of Indian economy saw the beginning of Taxation reforms in the nation. The taxation system in the nation has been subjected to consistent and comprehensive reform. Following factors arise the need for tax reforms in India:-
- Tax resources must be maximized for increased social sector investment in the economy.
- International competitiveness must be imparted to Indian economy in the globalized world.
- Transaction costs are high which must be reduced.
- Investment flow should be maximized.
- Equity should be improved
- The high cost nature of Indian economy should be changed.
- Compliance should be increased.
Direct & Indirect Tax Reforms
Direct tax reforms undertaken by the government are as follows:-
- Reduction and rationalization of tax rates, India now has three rates of income tax with the highest being at 30%.
- Simplification of process, through e-filling and simplifying the tax return forms.
- Strengthening of administration to check the leakage and increasing the tax base.
- Widening of tax base to include more tax payers in the tax net.
- Withdrawal of tax exceptions gradually.
- Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) was introduced for the ‘Zero Tax’ companies.
- The direct tax code of 2010 replace the outdated tax code of 1961.
Indirect tax reforms undertaken by the government are as follows:-
- Reduction in the peak tariff rates.
- reduction in the number of slabs
- Progressive change from specific duty to ad valor-em tax.
- VAT is introduced.
- GST has been planned to be introduced.
- Negative list of services since 2012.