Trade is known as the exchange of commodities and services. Prosperity of a State/Nation depends on the Balance of Trade. Trade play an important role in the development of the state and is dependent on several factors such as:-
- Means of Communication
- Education and Literacy level in the society
- Transport Network
- Surplus Production
- Diversity of Goods
- Sense of Cooperation
- Political Stability
Trade pattern of Rajasthan has changed a great deal since the independence with Rajasthan emerging as an exporter not only to other states but even to the foreign countries.
The economy of the state is primarily agricultural andrural. The Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) isone ofthe importantindicators tomeasuretheeconomic output and development of the state. It isdefined as the aggregate of the monetary value of allthe final goods and services produced within thegeographical boundaries of the state, counted withoutduplication during a specified period of time, usually a year.
Rajasthan has a great potential for the development of following industries:-
- Gems and Ornaments
- Woollen Carpet and Namdas
- Handicraft Goods
- Animal derived goods
- Chemical Products
- Engineering goods
- Agricultural Products
- Textile Printing
- Tie and Die works
Government of Rajasthan has taken several efforts for the promotion of exports from Rajasthan, which are as follows:-
- Export Promotion Council
- Export Promotion Industrial Park:- at Sitapur(Jaipur)
- Information Technology Park:- at Sitapur(Jaipur)
- Jem Station Industrial Park- at Jaipur
- Centre for Development of Stones (CDOS) in Jaipur at Sitapur.
- Electronic Hardware Technology Park at Kukas in Jaipur.
- Agro food parks developed by RIICO at Kota,Jodhpur,Alwar and Ganganagar.
- Stone park at Dholpur and Karauli.
- Japanese Park at Neemrana,Alwar.
- Software Technology Park at Kanakpura (Jaipur)
- Inland Container depot at Jaipur.
Following is the short explanation of economic review of Rajasthan:
Important Facts of Census 2011
Important Targets of Socio Economic Development 12th Five Year Plan
- Ensuring empowerment of women
- Financial inclusion for all sections of the society
- End-to-end service delivery platform for cash and non-cash benefits with complete transparency
- Closer-to-home banking services to citizens
- A unified platform for a large number of schemes
- Includes both family and individual beneficiary schemes
- Family card(in women name) and Individual card
- Unified Bhamashah Resident Data Hub (BDH)
- Secure system using-Micro-text printing,InvisibleUV,Fluorescent ink printing ,Bar Code/QR and Hologram Hot stamping
- Data Seeding :- the process of inserting Bhamashah ID, Aadhar number and bank account detail of the resident in a scheme/ departmental database.
- Both cash and non-cash transactions of a family are monitored through transaction mapper.
- Mobile app to Check status of enrolment ,Check status of transactions and transactions via digital wallet.
Gross Domestic Product
Per Capita Income
- Gross Capital Formationis 201250 Crores
- Various Price Indexesare:- Whole Sale Price Index(Base 1999-2000)=75,Consumer Price Index for Industrial Workers(Base 2001)=Jaipur-245 ,Consumer Price Index for Agricultural Labourers (Base 1986-87)= 906
Public Distribution System
- Annapurna BhandarYojna:- development of fair price shops as annapurnabhandar’s where multi brand quality consumer goods would be available.
- Computerization of PDS and digital ration cards.
- Deployment of Point of Sale Machine at Fair Price Shops.
- Minimum Support Price and Public Procurement
- Rajasthan State Food and Civil Supply Corporation.
- Establishment of office of directorate of Consumer Affairs.
- Total final Food-grain Production-196.22 Lakh Tonnes (2014-15)
- National Food Security Mission(Wheat, Rice and Pulses) even for course cereals and commercial crops.
- National Mission on oil-seeds and oil palms
- National Mission on Agriculture extension and technology
- National Mission for sustainable agriculture:- Rainfed area development, soil health, climate change.
- PM KrishiSichaiYojna
- Rajeev Gandhi KrishiSahayakSathiYojna:- Financial assistance of 2 lakh in case of work side accidental death.
- Mahatma JyotibaPhuleMandiSharmikKalyanYojna:- Prignancy assistance(payment of 45 days of non skilled labour rate),Marriage assistance(rs 20,000 upto two girls),scholership for students(for all students getting >60% marks) and Medical Assistance(rs 20,000in case of serious disease )
- MukhyaMantriJalSwalambhan– self reliance of water supply in 21000 villages.
- SarasSurakshaKavaj-Insurance cover to milk producers.
- Mini Uphaar Market-to provide consumer goods to rural folks
- Women cooperatives
- Rajasthan State Industrial Development and Investment Corporation(RIICO) is an apex organization engaged in fostering growth of industrialization in the state.
Various schemes and initiatives:-
- PM Employment Generation Programme-by promoting rural and urban commercial activities
- Industrial Promotion Camps- at district and panchayatsamiti level
- Household industry scheme- to make women self dependent
- Mahatma Gandhi BunkarBimaYojna
- Rajasthan Investment Promotion Scheme-2014– Exemption and subsities to investors in stamp duty, land tax,conversion charges and electricity bills
- Rural Non-Farm DevelopementAgengy(RUDA)- promoting self employment of rural artisians by cluster aproach
- GI Indicator for – Blue pottery, Bangru Hand Block Prints and Kota Doriya
- Resurgent Rajasthan Partnership Submit 2015-314575 crore proposed investment and 239244 employment generation.
- Scheduled Caste and Tribal Sub Plan- 50% rebate in allotment of plots upto 2000 Sqm
- Japanese Park at Neemrana(Alwar)
- Korean Investment Zone at Ghiloth(Alwar)
- Two SEZ for gems and jewelry at Sitapur and Jaipur
- Rajasthan Startup Fest 2015
- Total installed capacity of 17281 MW
- Rajasthan Solar Energy Policy-2014- tinll Dec 2015 total capicity developed=1264 MW
- The road density in the state is 60.88 km. per 100 sq
- GraminGaurav Path
- Meri Bus Mera Route Scheme
Social Sector Developement
- Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009
- MeenaManchas:-to create awareness in the community on the social issues viz child marriage, dowry system etc.
- AdhyapikaManch:-to provide friendly environment to girl child in school.
- Academic Mela:-to develop creative learning approach among children with special focus on science and mathematics.
- Saksham:-self-defensive training to girls
- Abhyas:-promoting reading habits
- Jagriti:-Awareness among community for girls education.
- SambalanAbhiyan:To ensure quality education in schools.
- ShalaDharshan-colection of basic information and statistical data from Government elementary schools
- MahilaShikshanViharas the residential schools till class 10th
- National Mental Health Programme
- National Mental Health Programme in Hanumangarh
- Rajasthan JananiShishuSurakshaYojna:-To reduce the IMR and high mortality rate of women during child birth
- Mother and Child Health and Nutrition Days:-To enhance immunization coverage
- National Health Mission
- Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) Sahyogni
- Janani Express
- ‘108’ Toll Free Ambulance Yojana
- MukhyaMantri BPL JeevanRakshaKosh:-free treatment facility (both indoor and outdoor) is provided to beneficiaries in all government facilities
- Safe Motherhood Day and PrasutiNiyojanDiwa
- Mission IndraDhanush
Local Self Govt and other social sector schemes:-
- National Urban Livelihood Mission
- Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission
- Shahari Jan SahbhagiYojana (SJSY)– Public partnership in urban development
For Depresed section of the society
- AnupratiYojana:-for sc&st passing civils and state civils exam
- SahyogYojana:-for SC & ST for marriage of daughter rs 10,000+ 5000(if daughter is 10th pass)+10000(if graduate)
Other social sector scheme for childs:-
- PalanharYojana:-for children whose both parents have either died or have been sentenced to death or have · been awarded life imprisonment by a court of law.
- Integrated Child Protection Scheme (ICPS)
- MukhyaMantriHunarVikasYojana:-skill devlopementprogramm for the children aged 17 years to 21 years
Rural Developement and Panchayati Raj
- Rajasthan GrameenAajeevikaVikasParishad –RAJEEVIKA (RGAVP)is an autonomous society mandated to implement all rural livelihood programmes associated with Self Help Group (SHG) based institutional architecture.
- Indira AwasYojana (IAY):-to provide housing to members of scheduled castes/scheduled tribes, freed bonded labourers and non-SC/ST rural poor living Below Poverty Line by providing them grant-in aid.
- Guru GolvalkarJanbhagidariVikasYojana (GGJVY):-Community partnership in rural development
- Dang Area Development Programme:-Ravenous and gorge affected area infested by dacoits
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND COMMUNICATION (IT&C)
- Rajasthan Sampark:-a single point of contact to the citizens to lodge and track grievances
- Geographical Information System (GIS) platform
- Citizen Contact Centre (CCC)
- Digitally Signed Certificates
- e-Mitra Kiosks
- State Portal and integrated government portals
- eSancharis an application for sending event based notifications to applicants/beneficiaries as well as officialsthrough Short Message Service (SMS) /Voice · Message/Structure queries.
- iFactis being used through Rajasthan Sampark for Reality Check. can be linked with any departmental
- State Master Centralised Data Hub
- Rajasthan Accountability Assurance System(RAAS)
- Raj eVault
- Raj Net
- Raj eSign
Science & Technology
- State Remote Sensing Application Centre, Jodhpur
- Patent facility centre at Udaipur, Bikaner, Jodhpur, Kota & Ajmer
- Biotechnology Policy 2015:-works will be carried out to establish Bioinformatics, Gene bank, Finishing,School, Virtual Biotech University,Biotechnology Knowledge Park and advanced Genomics Research Centre.
- Ring Road Project, Jaipur
- Exhibition-cum-Convention Centre Project, Jaipur
- International Conventional Centre Mansarovar, Jaipur
- Golf Course, Convention Centre, Exhibition Space, Hotels/ Resorts at Achrol, Jaipur
- Transmission Projects on Build, Own, Operate and Maintain (BOOM) basis.
- Up-gradation of existing District/Sub-District Hospitals as Medical Colleges
- Delawas Sewage Treatment Plant, Jaipur
Externally Aided Projects
- Rajasthan Minor Irrigation Improvement Project aided by JICA
- Rajasthan Urban Sector Development Investment Program (RUSDIP) aided by Asian Development Bank.
- Mitigating Poverty in Western Rajasthan – IFAD
- Rajasthan Rural Livelihood Project- World Bank
- Rajasthan Agricultural Competitiveness Project-World Bank
- Rajasthan Road Sector Modernization Project (RRSMP)-World Bank
- Rajasthan Rural Water Supply and Fluorosis Mitigation Project-Nagaur–JICA
- Jaipur Metro- ADB
- Rajasthan Renewable Energy Transmission Investment Program-ADB
- Twenty Point Programme
- National Rural Livelihood Mission
Major Agricultural Issues of Rajasthan.
Major Agricultural Issues of Rajasthan are:-
- To achieve self-sufficiency in food production.
- To increase Agricultural production and income of farmers / farm labours.
- To promote sustainable use of Natural Resources such as Land and Water.
- To promote Soil Health Management and Integrated Nutrient Management.
- Promote Crop Diversification.
- Promote use of agricultural inputs based on recommendation of soil and water testing.
- To ensure availability and quality of agricultural inputs.
- Promote Organic Farming.
- To promote Integrated Pest – Disease Management system.
- To transfer modern agriculture technique developed by technical institutes and scientists.
- To promote agricultural mechanization to carryout agriculture operation timely.
- To promote mixed-intensive farming for increased employment opportunities and income per unit area.
- To develop scientific farming techniques for making agriculture more remunerative for farmers.
- To increase the production of certain agricultural commodities, so that raw material for industries is available for increased exports.
- To reduces cost of cultivation and strive for holistic development of farmer.
- Crop insurance to protect farmer against natural disasters and monsoon failure.
- To initiate programme that help to increase per capita incomes of farmer in back ward areas as well as for SC/ST.
- To promote women empowerment in agriculture.
- Organize training on various aspects of agro techniques for their mass dissemination.
- Quick and effective solutions of day to day problems of farmers
Agricultural Zones of Rajasthan:-
|Zone||Area||District Covered||Average Rainfall (mm)||Major Crops||Soils||Agriculture Research Station||Adaptive Trial Centres|
|IA||Arid western plain||Barmer& part of Jodhpur||200-370||PearlmilletMothbean Sesame||Wheat, Mustard, Cumin||Desert soils and sand dunes aeolian soil, coarse sand in texture some places calcareous||Mandore, Jodhpur||Rampura|
|IB||Irrigated north western plain||Sriganganagar, Hanumangarh||100-350||Cotton, Clusterbean||Wheat, Mustard, Gram||Alluvial deposites calcareous, high soluble salts & exchangeable sodium||Ganganagar||ShriKaranpur, Ganganagar&Hanumangarh|
|IC||Hyper arid partial irrigated zone||Bikaner, Jaisalmer, Churu||100-350||PearlmilletMothbeanClusterbean||Wheat, Mustard, Gram||Desert soils and sand dunes aeolian soil, loamycoarse in texture & calcareous||Beechwal Bikaner||Loonkaran Bikaner|
|IIA||Internal drainage dry zone||Nagaur, Sikar, Jhunjhunu, Part of Churu||300-500||PearlmilletClusterbean Pulses||Mustard, Gram||Sandy loam, sallow depth red soils in depressions||Fatehpur, Sikar|
|IIB||Transitional plain of Luni basin||Jalore, Pali, Part of Sirohi, Jodhpur||300-500||PearlmilletClusterbean sesame||Wheat, Mustard||Red desert soils in Jodhopur, Jalore&Palisierzems in Pali&Sirohi||Keshwana, Jalore||Sumerpur, Pali|
|IIIA||Semi arid eastern plains||Jaipur, Ajmer, Dausa, Tonk||500-700||PearlmilletClusterbean Sorghum||Wheat, Mustard, Gram||Sierozens, eastern part alluvial, west north west lithosols, foot hills, brown soils||Durgapura, Jaipur||Tabiji, Ajmer|
|IIIB||Flood prone eastern plain||Alwar, Dholpur, Bharatpur, Karoli, S.Madhopur||500-700||PearlmilletClusterbean Groundnut||Wheat, Barley, Mustard, Gram||Alluvial prone to water logging, nature of recently alluvial calcareous has been observed||Navgaun, Alwar||Malikpur, Bharatpur|
|IVA||Sub-humid southern plains||Bhilwara, Sirohi, Udaipur, Chittorgarh||500-900||Maize, Pulses, Sorghum||Wheat, Gram||Soil are lithosolsat foot hills &alluvials in plains||Udaipur||Chittorgarh|
|IVB||Humid sothern plains||Dungarpur, Udaipur, Banswara, Chittorgarh||500-1100||Maize, Paddy Sorghum Blackgram||Wheat, Gram||Predominantly reddish medium texture, well drained calcareous, shallow on hills, deep soils in valleys|
|V||Humid south eastern plain||Kota, Jhalawar, Bundi, Baran||650-1000||Sorghum Soyabean||Wheat, Mustard||Black of alluvial origin, clay loam, groundwater salinity||Ummedganj, Kota||Chattarpura, Bun|
|Sr. No||Scheme and Programs for Agricultural Development in Rajasthan|
|1||National Food Security Mission (NFSM)|
|(i) NFSM – Wheat|
|(ii) NFSM – Pulses|
|(iii) NFSM – Coarse Cereals|
|(iv) NFSM – Commercial Crops (Cotton)|
|2||National Mission on Oil Seeds & Oil Palms (NMOOP)|
|(i) Oil Seed Crops (MM-I)|
|(ii) Tree Borne Oil Seed Crops (TBO’s) (MM-III)|
|3||National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA)|
|(i) Rain-fed Area Development (RAD) Programme|
|(ii) Climate Change & Sustainable Agriculture:|
|Monitoring, Modeling& Net Working (CCSAMMN)|
|(iii) Soil Health Management:-|
|(a) Soil Health Card Scheme|
|(b) ParampragatKrishiVikasYojna (PKVY) – Popularization of Organic Farming|
|4||National Mission on Agriculture Extension & Technology (NMAET )|
|(i) Sub Mission of Agriculture Extension (SAME)|
|(ii) Sub Mission on Seed & Planting Material (SMSP)|
|(iii) Sub Mission on Plant Protection & Quarantine(SMPP)|
|(iv) Sub Mission on Agriculture Mechanization(SMAM)|
|5||RastriyaKrishiVikasYojna (RKVY): Project Based|
|(i) Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP)|
|(iii) Per Drop More Crop|
|(iv) Watershed Development|
|7||Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme (WBCIS) – 20 District|
|8||Modified National Agriculture Insurance Scheme (MNAIS)|
1 National Food Security Mission (NFSM) NFSM in the state of Rajasthan has following sub missions under it
(i) NFSM – Wheat
(ii) NFSM – Pulses
(iii) NFSM – Coarse Cereals
(iv) NFSM – Commercial Crops (Cotton)
12th Five Year Plan with new targets of additional production of food grains of 25 million tons of food grains comprising of 10 million tons rice, 8 million tons of wheat, 4 million tons of pulses and 3 million tons of coarse cereals by the end of 12th Five Year Plan.
2 National Mission on Oil Seeds & Oil Palms (NMOOP)
It has following two sub missions:-
(i) Oil Seed Crops (MM-I)
(ii) Tree Borne Oil Seed Crops (TBO’s) (MM-III)
The mission would help in boosting the production of oilseeds by 6.58 million tonnes and will bring additional area of 1.25 lakh hectares under oil palm cultivation.
In addition to this, it would also lead to an enhancement in productivity of fresh fruit bunches to 15,000 kg/ha from 4927 kg/ha and increase in collection of tree borne oilseeds to 14 lakh tonne.
It would increase production of vegetable oil sources by 2.48 million tonnes from oilseeds (1.70 MT), oil palm (0.60 MT) and tree borne oilseeds (0.18 MT) by the end of the 12th Plan period.
3 National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA)
Rajasthan has a large tract of Arid region and thus the development of Sustainable Agriculture is of Prime Importance for the agricultural development within the state. NMSA Has the following sub missions:-
(i) Rain-fed Area Development (RAD) Programme:- The objective of the programme is to improve the quality of life of the farmer, especially that of the small and marginal farmer. This would be done by offering a package that would maximize farm returns by increasing agricultural productivity, minimising adverse impact of crop failure caused by drought, floods etc and restoration of confidence in this form of agriculture by creating sustained employment opportunities through improved on-farm technologies, etc.
The strategy would focus on multi-cropping, rotational cropping, inter-cropping, mixed-cropping along with allied activities that include horticulture, livestock etc. This would not only maximise farm returns but also mitigate impacts of floods, drought etc. To do this the programme will focus on –
- Minimum tillage practice,
- Support of existing income generating activities like fisheries, agriculture, mushroom etc. Conducting complementary activities like construction of ponds, land treatment, wells, supply of pumps etc,
- Adoption of a cluster approach to utilize the potential of available or created common resources,
- Support for value addition and storage structures to facilitate better returns for farm produce.
(ii) Climate Change & Sustainable Agriculture:Monitoring, Modeling& Net Working (CCSAMMN):- CCSAMMN, a component of NMSA will provide creation and bidirectional (land/farmers to research/scientific establishments and vice versa) dissemination of climate change related information and knowledge by way of piloting climate change adaptation/mitigation research/model projects in the domain of climate smart sustainable management practices and integrated farming system suitable to local agro-climatic conditions.
(iii) Soil Health Management:-
(a) Soil Health Card Scheme:- A Soil Health Card is used to assess the current status of soil health and, when used over time, to determine changes in soil health that are affected by land management. A Soil Health Card displays soil health indicators and associated descriptive terms. The indicators are typically based on farmers’ practical experience and knowledge of local natural resources. The card lists soil health indicators that can be assessed without the aid of technical or laboratory equipment.
(b) ParampragatKrishiVikasYojna (PKVY) – to support and promote organic farming and thereby improving soil health. This will encourage farmers to adopt eco-friendly concept of cultivation and reduce their dependence on fertilizers and agricultural chemicals to improve yields.
4 National Mission on Agriculture Extension & Technology (NMAET )
(i) Sub Mission of Agriculture Extension (SAME)
(ii) Sub Mission on Seed & Planting Material (SMSP)
(iii) Sub Mission on Plant Protection &Quarantine(SMPP)
(iv) Sub Mission on Agriculture Mechanization(SMAM)
5 RastriyaKrishiVikasYojna (RKVY): Project Based
6 PradhanMantriKrishiSinchayeeYojna (PMKSY)
(i) Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP)
(iii) Per Drop More Crop
(iv) Watershed Development
7 Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme (WBCIS) – 20 District
8 Modified National Agriculture Insurance Scheme (MNAIS)
9 State Plan